Stanford University Departments of Physics & Applied Physics and the Ginzton Laboratory and QFARM Initiative

Our group has pioneered the creation and study of Bose and Fermi-degenerate gases of dysprosium, the most magnetic element. In our experiments, we exploit the long-range and anisotropic character of the dipole-dipole interaction among Dy atoms to create novel testbeds for quantum many-body physics, both within and away from equilibrium. For example, we recently made a quantum and magnetic version of the famous Newton's cradle toy. We used it to explore the breakdown of quantum integrability and the onset of thermalization in a strongly interacting quantum 1D system. We've also used a new topological pumping scheme---that works like an Archimedes screw---to drive the 1D gas to highly excited "quantum many-body scar" states. We will now aim to explore these prethermal states and others using the coupling of the gas to photons in our new confocal cavity QED system.

## News

We observe a novel quantum many-body phenominon in quench compressed scar states. Published in…

We report the first measurements of the rapidity and momentum distributions of equilibrium dipolar…

Watch here for Prof. Benjamin Lev's VAMOS seminar talk on "Topological pumping of a 1D dipolar gas…

LevLab has created a quantum Archimedes' screw. See paper published in Science
From Stanford News…

New theory paper in PRL shows how to use photon-mediated interactions in a multimode optical cavity…

We have created novel quantum many-body scar states by topologically pumping a 1D dipolar Bose gas…

Published in Phys. Rev X. New work on thermalization in near-integrable system. See popular press:…

Collisions of Dy BECs yield halos of dipolar scattered atoms. See movie made by Andrew Sykes. See…

APS Physics Viewpoint on quantum flucuations in imploding dipolar condensates.

We created the first spin-orbit-coupled dipolar Fermi gas with Dy! Read about it in PRX here.

We report Bose-Einstein condensation of two isotopes of the highly magnetic element dysprosium:…

We observe the suppression of inelastic dipolar scattering due to Fermi statistics in ultracold…

Congratulations to Mingwu! Dr. Mingwu Lu defended his thesis June 2014 and is now a postdoc with…

We report in this Phys. Rev. A Rapid paper (arXiv) the observation of resonance-like loss in the…

Lev and theory collaborators publish paper in PRA Rapid Communications on creating synthetic gauge…

PRL announcing world's first dipolar Dy DFG selected as Editors' Suggestion, and featured in…

Two dysprosium papers published in PRA fall 2010. Papers detail Dy MOT physics and a novel sub-…

Dy MOT and magnetic trap collisions paper published in Phys. Rev. Lett. Research highlight in…

Announcing the world's first Dysprosium magneto-optical trap (MOT)! News bulletin

## Team Members

## Publications

K. Yang, Y. Zhang, K.-Y. Li, K. -Y. Lin, S. Gopalakrishnan, M. Rigol, and B. L. Lev**Phantom energy of a quenched, prethermal quantum many-body scar state**

Science 385, 1063 (2024)

arXiv:2308.11615

K.-Y. Li, Y. Zhang, K. Yang, K.-Y. Lin, S. Gopalakrishnan, M. Rigol, and B. L. Lev**Rapidity and momentum distributions of one-dimensional dipolar quantum gases**

Physical Review A **107**, L061302 (2023). pdf

Selected as a Letter and Editors' Suggestion

arXiv:2211.09118

**Review article: Dipolar physics with atomic quantum gases**

L. Chomaz, I. Ferrier-Barbut, F. Ferlaino, B. Laburthe-Tolra, B. L. Lev, and T. Pfau

Reports on Progress in Physics **86**, 026401 (2023). pdf

arXiv:2201:02672

W. Kao, K.-Y. Li, K.-Y. Lin, S. Gopalakrishnan, and B. L. Lev**Topological pumping of a 1D dipolar gas into strongly correlated prethermal states**

Science **371**, 296 (2021). pdf & SM*News coverage:*

Stanford News: *Stanford physicists find new state of matter in a one-dimensional quantum gas* pdf

APS DAMOP Highlight: *The Turn of the Screw*

arXiv:2002.10475 pdf

Y. Tang, W. Kao, K.-Y. Li, S. Seo, K. Mallayya, M. Rigol, S. Gopalakrishnan, and B. L. Lev**Thermalization near integrability in a dipolar quantum Newton's cradle**

Physical Review X **8**, 021030 (2018).

See Editors' Choice** Watching magnetic atoms thermalize** in Science

See News: Quantum Physics **A tiny version of this physics toy is revealing quantum secrets** in ScienceNews

See Synopsis **Pathway to Quantum Thermalization**** **in APS Physics

See Research Highlight **Towards thermalization** in Nature Physics

See Article **Toy inspires experiment on behavior of quantum systems** in Stanford News

arXiv:1707.07031 pdf

Y. Tang, W. Kao, K.-Y. Li, and B. L. Lev**Tuning the dipole-dipole interaction in a quantum gas with a rotating magnetic field**

Physical Review Letters **120**, 230401 (2018).

arXiv:1803.10867 (2018). pdf

W. Kao, Y. Tang, N. Burdick, and B. L. Lev**Anisotropic dependence of tune-out wavelength near Dy 741-nm transition**

Optics Express **25**, 3411 (2017). pdf

arXiv:1609.02111

N. Q. Burdick, A. G. Sykes, Y. Tang, and B. L. Lev**Anisotropic collisions of dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in the universal regime**

New Journal of Physics **18**, 113004 (2016). pdf

See accompanying Perspective "Smashing Magnets" by Igor Ferrier-Barbut. pdf

arXiv:1607.06743

Y. Tang, A. G. Sykes, N. Q. Burdick, J. M. DiSciacca, D. S. Petrov, and B. L. Lev**Anisotropic expansion of a thermal dipolar Bose gas**

Physical Review Letters **117**, 155301 (2016). pdf

arXiv:1606.08856

L. D. Carr and B. L. Lev**Viewpoint: An Arrested Implosion**

APS Physics **9**, 55 (2016). pdf

N. Q. Burdick, Y. Tang, and B. L. Lev**A long-lived spin-orbit-coupled dipolar Fermi gas**

Physical Review X **6**, 031022 (2016). pdf

arXiv:1605.03211

Y. Tang, A. Sykes, N. Burdick, J. Bohn, and B. L. Lev*s*-wave scattering lengths of the strongly dipolar bosons ^{162}Dy and ^{164}Dy

Physical Review A **92**, 022703 (2015). pdf

arXiv:1506.03393

Erratum:** **Physical Review A **93**, 059905(E) (2016). pdf

N. Y. Yao, S. D. Bennett, C. R. Laumann, B. L. Lev, and A. V. Gorshkov**Bilayer fractional quantum Hall states with dipoles**

Physical Review A **92**, 033609 (2015). pdf

arXiv:1505.03099

Y. Tang, N. Burdick, K. Baumann, and B. L. Lev**Bose-Einstein condensation of ^{162}Dy and ^{160}Dy**

New Journal of Physics

**17**, 045006 (2015). pdf

Special Issue: Focus on New Frontiers of Cold Molecules Research

arXiv:1411.3069

N. Q. Burdick, K. Baumann, Y. Tang, M. Lu, and B. L. Lev**Fermionic suppression of dipolar relaxation**

Physical Review Letters **114**, 023201 (2015). pdf

arXiv:1407.3842

K. Baumann, N. Q. Burdick, M. Lu, and B. L. Lev**Observation of low-field Fano-Feshbach resonances in ultracold gases of dysprosium**

Physical Review A, Rapid Communications, **89,** 020701(R) (2014). pdf

arXiv:1312.6401

X. Cui, B. Lian, T.-L. Ho, B. L. Lev, and H. Zhai**Synthetic gauge field with highly magnetic lanthanide atoms**

Physical Review A, Rapid Communications **88**, 011601(R) (2013).

arXiv:1303.6004; pdf

M. Lu, N. Q. Burdick, and B. L. Lev**Quantum Degenerate Dipolar Fermi Gas**

Physical Review Letters **108**, 215301 (2012).

Selected as *Editors' Suggestion* and featured in Physics Viewpoint

arXiv:1202:4444; pdf

M. Hafezi, Z. Kim, S. Rolston, L. Orozco, B. L. Lev, and J. Taylor**An atomic interface between microwave and optical photons**

Physical Review A, Rapid communications **85**, 020302(R) (2012). pdf

M. Lu, N. Q. Burdick, S.-H. Youn, and B. L. Lev**Strongly Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensate of Dysprosium**

Physical Review Letters **107**, 190401 (2011).

arXiv:1108.5993; pdf

M. Lu, S.-H. Youn, and B. L. Lev**Spectroscopy of a narrow-line laser cooling transition in atomic dysprosium**

Physical Review A **83**, 012510 (2011).

arXiv:1009.2962; pdf

S.-H. Youn, M. Lu, U. Ray, and B. L. Lev**Dysprosium magneto-optical traps**

Physical Review A **82**, 043425 (2010). pdf

S.-H. Youn, M. Lu, and B. L. Lev**Anisotropic sub-Doppler laser cooling in dysprosium magneto-optical traps**

Physical Review A **82**, 043403 (2010). pdf

M. Lu, S.-H. Youn, and B. L. Lev**Trapping ultracold dysprosium: A highly magnetic gas for dipolar physics**

Physical Review Letters **104**, 063001 (2010). pdf

Nature Research Highlights article “Dazzling dysprosium,” February 25th, 2010.

PhysicsWorld.com news report “Ultracold magnetic atoms bode well for quantum studies,” February 18th, 2010.

S. Kobtsev, B. Lev, J. Fortagh, and V. Baraulia**Powerful narrow-line source of blue light for laser cooling Yb/Er and Dysprosium atoms**

Proc. of SPIE **7578**, 75782F-1 (2010). pdf

B. Fregoso, K. Sun, E. Fradkin, and B. L. Lev**Biaxial nematic phases in ultracold dipolar Fermi gases**

New Journal of Physics **11**, 103003 (2009). pdf