We present a novel cavity QED system in which a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is trapped within a high-finesse optical cavity whose length may be adjusted to access both single-mode and multimode configurations. We demonstrate the coupling of an atomic ensemble to the cavity in both configurations. The atoms are confined either within an intracavity far-off-resonance optical dipole trap (FORT) or a crossed optical dipole trap via transversely oriented lasers. Multimode cavity QED provides fully emergent and dynamical optical lattices for intracavity BECs. Such systems will enable explorations of quantum soft matter, including superfluid smectics, superfluid glasses, and spin glasses as well as neuromorphic associative memory.